male Pityogenes chalcographus searching for place to bore on Norway spruce
Byers, J.A. 1989a. Chemical ecology of bark beetles. Experientia 45:271-283.

Abstract-- The purview of chemical ecology and the recent criticisms of improper application of theory to bark beetle phenomena is briefly discussed. Seven levels of research in chemical ecology are presented as well as their relationship to research on bark beetles. The biology and chemical ecology of several pest bark beetles from North America and Europe are discussed in regard to host-tree selection theories of random landing on trees or attraction to semiochemicals. The diversity and similarities of pheromone components among species are presented in relation to their biosynthesis from host-tree precursors and in relation to the ecological implications of de novo or precursor syntheses. Individual variation in biosynthesis of, response to, and release of pheromones is discussed. Olfactory perception of semiochemicals at both the electrophysiological and behavioral levels is presented. Orientation to semiochemicals during walking and flying is discussed with reference to the significance of dose-response curves for determining a compound's functionality in short- or long-range communication. The regulation of attack density, termination of the aggregation, mechanisms of attack spacing, and recognition of host suitability are presented in the context of an individual's avoidance of intra- and interspecifc competition. Finally, a brief summary of topics where our understanding of the chemical ecology of bark beetles and their associates is poorly known is presented.
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Chemical Ecology