Schlyter, F., Lfqvist, J. & Byers, J.A. 1987b. Behavioural sequence in attraction of the bark beetle Ips typogra- phus to pheromone sources. Physiological Entomology 12:185-196.

Abstract-- The functions of the two synergistic pheromone components, (4S)-cis-verbenol (cV) and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB), and the role of ipsdienol in the attraction of Ips typographus (L.) (Scolytidae) to pheromone sources were studied in the field. Absolute and relative beetle catches were compared between several traps placed at and nearby a central pheromone source: a pipe trap containing the source, a surrounding sticky trap, a nearby window trap, and four distinct window traps. A higher catch in the outer down-wind distant traps indicated an up-wind anemotaxis to the source. Increased MB release, with cV constant, increased the proportion caught in the central pipe trap, indicating MB as a landing stimulus. Release of MB alone gave a very small catch. Ipsdienol could not substitute for cV in the synergism with MB. An increase of cV, with MB constant, increased the number of beetles caught, but not the proportion caught in the pipe trap. The sex ratio was equal in the window traps, but fell to 30% males in both sticky and pipe traps, showing that a large proportion of the males attracted to the source did not land. The proportion of males in the pipe trap was reduced at the highest cV dose. The results support the idea of each pheromone component having a different relative importance in releasing different steps in the behavioural chain.
Chemical Ecology