Red wood ants Formica aquilonia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) attacking two mating Cetonia cuprea (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). These beetles, which are irridescent olive-green, are practically resistant to the attacks (one ant at left is spraying formic acid from its poison gland). The beetles through evolution have probably become adapted to the assaults of ants since females of this species lay eggs in the nests of red wood ants. The beetle's larvae are accepted by the ants. This photo was taken in late June (7 km south of Torsby, Sweden).

Images © 1996 by John A. Byers, Chemical Ecology.