Avtzis, N. 1991. Side captures in bark beetle pheromone traps in northern
greece. Anz. Schaedlingskd. Pflanzenschutz. Umweltschutz. 64 (1). 13-14. ab 13
Roechling Pheromone traps were used in a pine forest in Thessaloniki, N.
Greece. The synthetic pheromones Pheroprax, Linoprax, CME 1986 519.66 and CME
1988 619.02 were placed in the traps. As side captures 24 species of insects
were caught by the traps. Total 867 individual predators were captured in the
13 traps. In average 33 specimens of Thanasimus formicarius (L.) (Cleridae)
and 30 specimens of Aulonium ruficorne (0l.) (Colydiidae) were caught per
trap. LG GE.
Bakke, A., & Kvamme, T. 1978. Kairomone response by the predators
thanasimus-formicarius and thanasimus-rufipes to the synthetic pheromone of
ips-typographus. Norw. J. Entomol. 25 (1). 41-44. ab Spruce logs baited with
synthetic pheromone of the bark beetle, Ips typographus, and sprayed with
lindane attracted about 17 times more of the clerids Thanasimus formicarius
and T. rufipes than did logs without pheromone. Both sexes of Thanasimus
responded to the pheromone. One Thanasimus specimen was trapped for
approximately every 4th I. typographus. LG EN.
Bakke, A., & Kvamme, T. 1981. Kairomone response in thanasimus predators to
pheromone components of ips-typographus. J. Chem. Ecol. 7 (2). 305-312. ab T.
formicarius (L.) responds to racemic ipsdienol and ipsenol and less to
(S)-cis-verbenol. All 3 are pheromone components in several bark beetles of
the genus Ips. Synergistic effects appeared when the components were combined.
Methylbutenol alone, the specific pheromone component of I. typographus,
elicited no response, but synergestic effects appeared when methylbutenol was
combined with cis-verbenol and ipdienol. The sympatric species T. femoralis
(Zett.) responds to (S)-cis-verebenol, while ipsdienol and ipsenol synergize
the response. LG EN.
Dippel, C., Heidger, C., Nicolai, V., & Simon, M. 1997. The influence of
different predators on bark beetles in European forest ecosystems (Coleoptera:
Scolytidae). Entomologia. Generalis. 21 (3). 161-175. Issn 0171-8177. ab Field
and laboratory work was carried out to study the possible impact of 4
different species of bark beetle enemies. These are Scoloposcelis pulchella
Zetterstedt 1838 (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), Thanasimus formicarius Linnaeus
1758 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) Nemosoma elongatum Linnaeus 1761 (Coleoptera:
Ostomidae) and Medetera dendrobaena Kowarz 1877 (Diptera: Dolichopodidae).
These species are preying upon many bark beetles. The main prey species of N.
elongatum and M. dendrobaena are Pityogenes chalcographus Linnaeus 175 8
(Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Taphrorychus bicolor Herbst 1793 (Coleoptera:
Scolytidae), S. pulchella mainly attacks P. chalcographus. On spruce the bark
beetle Ips typographus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is one of the
most important prey species of T. formicarius. The predator and the bark
beetle species were reared in the laboratory to gain information about their
biology. The Scolytidae were also reared to provide an adequate food supply
for the predators. In the laboratory, the egg production of the predator
species and the prey consumption during their larval development were
determined. Furthermore, the densities and the voltinism of the antagonists
and of the bark beetles were investigated, Calculations to estimate the
predator capacity of the 4 antagonistic species were performed. Based on this
data the role of S. pulchella, T. formicarius, N. elongatum and N. dendrobaena
in bark beetle regulation is discussed. LG EN.
Fairhurst, C.P., & Harding, P.T. 1992. Bark beetles col. scolytidae attracted
to domestic washing compounds. Entomol. Mon. Mag. 128 (1540-1543). 196.
Faulds, W. 1988. Improved techniques for the laboratory rearing of
thanasimus-formicarius. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 18 (2). 187-190. ab An improved
rearing method for Thanasimus formicarius L. (Col: Cleridae) involved
transferring larvae hatched from eggs laid in vitro into bark-beetle-infested
billets. This technique is particularly useful in quarantine conditions. In
addition, the successful long-term cool storage of reared adults greatly
improved the efficiency of the rearing programme. LG EN.
Graemer, R. 1968. The distribution of checkered beetles cleridae in saxony.
Entomol. Ber. (berlin) (97-143). 115-118.
Hansen, K. 1983. Reception of bark beetle pheromone in the predaceous clerid
beetle thanasimus-formicarius coleoptera cleridae. J. Comp. Physiol. A. Sens.
Neural. Behav. Physiol. 150 (3). 371-378. ab The antennal olfactory receptors
of the predatory clerid beetle, T. formicarius (L.), are as sensitive to its
prey, Ips typographus. I. typographus (L.) is sensitive to ipsdienol,
(S)-cis-verbenol and 2,3,2-methylbutenol, suggesting components of the
aggregation pheromone of this bark beetle. The 2 spp. were stimulated under
identical conditions and comparisons were made between electroantennogram
(EAG) responses to synthetic pheromonal compounds of various species of bark
beetles. At threshold concentrations for eliciting EAG responses, T.
formicarius has almost equal sensitivity to most of the tested substances,
while I. typographus is more sensitive to ipsdienol and (S)-cis-verbenol,
putative components of its conspecific aggregation pheromone used in long
distance communication, than to its suggested antiaggregation pheromone,
ipsenol. In both species (S)-(+)-ipsdienol is the most effective of the tested
compounds. The dose response curves of verbenol isomers reside close to the
curve of (S)-(+)-ipsdienol in the clerid beetle; while in the bark beetle
these isomers are much less effective than (S)-(+)-ipsdienol at high stimulus
doses. Recordings from single olfactory cells of sensilla basiconica in T.
formicarius demonstrated an olfactory function of this sensillum type. The
individual receptor cells had broad reaction spectra to the test substances;
however, enantiomeric discrimination could be obtained through the response of
these receptor cells. The morphology and distribution of sensilla on the
antenna of T. formicarius were investigated by scanning electron microscopy.
The apparent strategy used by T. formicarius were investigated by scanning
electron microscopy. The apparent strategy used by T. formicarius for finding
its prey is to perceive various bark beetle and tree volatiles, then after
determining the quality of the perceived mixture of odors, to approach the
emitter of a preferred mixture. The kairomonal response of T. formicarius to
I. typographus could be due to a mixture of (S)-(+)-ipsdienol, (S)-(-)-ipsenol
and (S)-cis-verbenol. LG EN.
Klausnitzer, B. 1974. Malformation of the urogomphi of a thanasimus larva
coleoptera cleridae part 17 contribution to the information on the central
european coleoptera larvae. Entomol. Nachr. 18 (11-12). 184-185.
Kohnle, U., & Vite, J.P. 1984. Bark beetle predators strategies in the
olfactory perception of prey species by clerid and trogositid beetles. Z.
Angew. Entomol. 98 (5). 504-508. ab Thanasimus formicarius responded in
different numbers to traps baited with exo-brevicomin alone or in combination
with ethanol as well as to a mixture of ipsenol, ipsdienol and
(S)-cis-verbenol; compounds produced by and/or attractive to bark beetle
species colonizing coniferous and/or deciduous trees. Together with earlier
investigations, these results suggest the existence of at least 2 basic
strategies of bark beetle predators in securing an enlarged prey spectrum:
clerids often exhibit a "generalist strategy" in olfactory perception, whereas
some trogositids show a "specialist strategy". LG EN.
Krol, A., & Bakke, A. 1985. Effect of distance between the pheromone traps on
the effectiveness of the spruce bark beetle ips-lypographus aggregation. Acta.
Agrar. Silvestria. Ser. Silvestris. 24 (0). 21-30. ab In this study are
presented the results of the investigations carried out for April to June 1983
in spruce stands in the Forest Inspectorate Lardal, District Vestfold in
southern Norway. In the years 1978-1981 a mass incidence of the spruce bark
beetle occurred in that region. Three study areas were established. Among the
line running parallel to the wall of spruce stands at the distance of 15 m,
for each area 4 sections 100-m long were marked. Isolating spaces between
sections were 100-m apart. In the sections 2, 3, 5 or 10 traps of Norwegian
type, produced by Borregard Int. Ltd., Sarpsborg, were located. Distances
between traps were respectively: 50 m, 33.3 m, 20 m and 10 m. During the
flight time of the spruce bark beeetle 4 checks were made. A simultaneous
rotation of traps was performed following which 2, 3, 5 and 10 traps were hung
on a given section. For experiments aggregation pheromone Pheroprax was used,
made by Celamerck, West Germany. Throughout the experiment a total of 44,599
specimens of the Ips typographus were collected. The results obtained have
shown that the number of recovered beetles depended on the number of the
pheromone traps falling into a 100-m section of the stand-wall. In all the
study areas the number of the collected specimens of the spruce bark beetle
was highest in the sections with 10 traps. It was estimated at 4202 on the
study area No. 3 and to 8,608 specimens on the study area No. 1. Good results
were also obtained with 5 traps; then differences in the numbers of collected
beetles were slight, e.g. on the study area No. 1 a total of 8608 specimens of
Ips typographus were caught to 10 traps compared to 7636 beetles caught to 5
traps. The smallest number of beetles was caught to the traps located 50 m
apart. Analysis of mean numbers of the Ips typographus in individual traps has
shown that they were higher when the distance between traps was longer. At
shorter distances between traps the number of caught beetles became smaller.
In the traps placed 50 m apart mean numbers of beetles were almost twice as
large as at 10 m apart. Statistical calculations based on the analysis of
variance have shown for a total of collected beetles highly significant values
at a level of .alpha. = 0.01 for study areas, distances between traps and
check-up dates. Significant differences at a level of...
Langewald, J. 1989. Studies on the habitat selection of the bark beetle
predator thanasimus-formicarius l. coleoptera cleridae. Anz. Schaedlingskd.
Pflanzenschutz. Umweltschutz. 62 (5). 88-90. ab Optical and olfactory cues for
habitat selection of the bark-beetle-predator Thanasimus formicarius were
compared. In alternative choices, T. formicarius preferred black-coloured
trunk-models in vertical position, if single trunk-models of equal size in
vertical and horizontal position were offered. When a source of Ips
typographus-pheromone and a vertical trunk-model were offered, T. formicarius
preferred the trunk-model. If in the same display a trunk-model was placed
beside the pheromone-source, it showed a vice versa effect. The combination of
both is more attractive to T. formicarius, than a trunk-model only. The
habitat selection appears to be mostly influenced by the optical signal
"stem". LG GE.
Mamaev, B.M. 1977. Checkered beetle larvae coleoptera cleridae entomophages of
wood and forest insect pests. Entomol. Obozr. 56 (2). 395-408. ab A key and
morphological characteristics are presented for the larvae of genera of
checkered beetles (Orthopleura, Tenerus, Opilo, Trichodes, Clerus, Thanasimus,
Korynetes, Tarsostenus, Tillus, Tilliodea and Denops). Keys are also presented
for larvae of species of the genera Clerus (C. mutillarius and C. dealbatus),
Opilo (O. mollis, Opilo sp., O. carinatus and O. domesticus), and Thanasimus
(T. substriatus, T. formicarius and T. rufipes). The ecology of checkered
beetles is briefly discussed, including their significance as entomophages of
both useful insects (bees) and insect pests. Problems in the taxonomy of the
family Cleridae are mentioned. LG RS.
Mills, N.J. 1985. Some observations on the role of predation in the neutral
regulation of ips-typographus populations. Z. Angew. Entomol. 99 (3). 209-215.
ab Sample logs (spruce) were collected from various sites in Bavaria (West
Germany) at the end of the each of the first 2 generations of I. typographus
L. In 1983. The logs were analyzed by removal of the bark and measurement
ofthe densities of scolytids and 2 dominant predators. Scolytid larval
mortality averaged 81% in the sample logs and was unrelated to the density of
Medetera larvae but increased in relation to clerid (Thanasimus formicarius
L.) larval density. Laboratory feeding tests indicated that a single clerid
larvae could consume 44 prey during its development and that an estimated 18%
scolytid larval mortality was attributable, to clerid predation in the sample
logs. LG EN.
Nuessler, H. 1993. Faunistic notes: 481. Thanasimus pectoralis (Fuss, 1863) a
species of bark beetle new for Saxony (Col., Cleridae). Entomologische.
Nachrichten. Und. Berichte. 37 (1). 68.
Riba, J.M., & Blas, M. 1995. Insect associated to Trypodendron lineatum
(Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Orsis 10 (0). 105-122. Issn 0213-4039. ab During the
period 1988-1992, in Valle de Aran (East Pyrenees), a study on insect
associated to T. lineatum pheromone was carried out. The aims of the study
were: to draw up an checklist of species, and to describe the population
dynamics of the main associated insects. The results obtained can be
summarized as follows: a) the vast majority of the insects captured were
Coleoptera, and they can be classified into predators and
floemophagous-xylophagous-mycetophagous-saprophagous; b) among the predators,
T. formicarius, Rhizophagus spp., Rhinosimus spp. and Cryptolestes sp. were
abundant; c) throughout the sampling period, capture rates of T. formicarius
were stable, whereas those of Rhizophagus spp. were decreasing, and d) both
predators showed an accumulative curve of flight that was delayed with respect
to other associated insects. LG SP.
Rudinsky, J.A., Novak, V., & Svihara, P. 1971. Attraction of the bark beetle
ips-typographus to terpenes and a male produced pheromone. Z. Angew. Entomol.
67 (2). 179-188.
Schlyter, F. 1992. Sampling range attraction range and effective attraction
radius estimates of trap efficiency and communication distance in coleopteran
pheromone and host attractant systems. J. Appl. Entomol. 114 (5). 439-454. ab
There is a need for information on communication distances in natural systems
and the ranges of action of synthetic pheromone traps. The differences between
sampling range (RS, time dependent ecological measure) and attraction range
(RA, behavioral measure) are stressed and compared to the simple but
artificial effective attraction radius concept (REA, mainly trap and bait
dependent). To estimate such ranges defined theoretical concepts and proper
analysis of data are needed. Quantitative estimates are rare in the literature
but maximum RA for Lepidoptera (moths) may reach 200-400 m and the
corresponding Rs functions may be in the range 200-500 m. RS estimated from
regression of recapture of marked Cyclas formicarius (Curculionidae) after 16
h of sampling was 390 m for a high dose (10 .mu.g) and 94 m for a low dose
(0.01 .mu.g). RA for bark beetles (Scolytidae) estimated from regression
analysis of trap interactions are in the range of 19-97 m, but have large
confidence intervals due to the few data points available. Passive traps at
1-35 m distance from pheromone traps yield RA values based on log-log
regression values of between 17 and 34 m depending on pheromone release(10-5
to 10-2 g/h) for Ips typographus. Effective attraction radii's were estimated,
both as simple point-estimates and as means with confidence intervals. Minima
and maximum estimates obtained for bark beetles were 0.2-1 m for Tomicus
piniperda, 0.6 m for T. minor, 0.3-3 m for IPs typographus, 3-10 m for
Pityogenes chalcographus and 0.2-0.4 m for Scolytus (scolytus) triarmatus. It
is concluded that RS and RA are of great basic and applied value but both
dififcult to estiamte. REA lacks a direct relation to natural behaviour but is
a useful index of trapping power and specificity. LG EN.
Schlyter, F., & Lundgren, U. 1993. Distribution of a bark beetle and its
predator within and outside old growth forest reserves no increase of hazard
near reserves. Scand. J. For. Res. 8 (2). 246-256. ab To test the hypothesis
that reserves create a hazard because pest insects are more abundant in
unmanaged forest reserves than in managed forests, pheromone trapping of Ips
typographus was done within and outside two small old growth forest reserves
(Tallet and Nyteboda) in southern Sweden. Initially, two 2 km perpendicular
transects centered in the Tallet reserve did not show higher abundance of
insects in the reserve in 1986 and 1987. A second hypothesis, that more
predators existed in the diverse ecosystem in the reserves (giving fewer bark
beetles) was tested. An important predator of bark beetles. Thanasimus
formicarius, was monitored with kairomone traps inside and outside reserves,
together with the prey in 1989. The catches of the prey (Ips) showed the same
pattern as earlier. The predator was caught in small numbers, but in a pattern
opposite to the predictions of the hypothesis of higher catches inside the
reserves. LG EN.
Schlyter, F., Byers, J.A., & Lofqvist, J. 1987. Attraction of pheromone
sources of different quantity quality and spacing density-regulation
mechanisms in bark beetle ips-typographus. J. Chem. Ecol. 13 (6). 1503-1524.
ab The density of bark-beetle colonization of a tree could be regulated by a
quantitative effect of the pheromone signal from beetles in the tree
(cessation of release of attractive pheromone) or by a qualitative effect
(production of pheromone components inhibiting attraction). The quantitative
hypothesis was tested on Ips typographus by varying the release rate of the
two known attractive compounds, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB) and
(4S)-cis-verbenol (cV). The highest number of beetles were captured at traps
with the highest release rates. The catch was nearly proportional to the
release of MB and cV at a distance between traps of 12 m or more. At 6-, 3-,
and 1.5-m distances between traps deployed in a triangular arrangement there
was still a good discrimination between release rates, but relatively more
beetles, especially males, were caught on the blank. The lower release rates
caught an equal sex ratio while the highest release rate caught only about 30%
males. The qualitative hypothesis was tested by releasing the suspected
inhibitors ipsdienol (Id) and ipsenol (Ie), from traps in the same amounts as
cV. Only small effects were noted for I. typographus. However, the competitor
I. duplicatus was attracted to Id and inhibited by Ie, while the predator
Thanasimus formicarius was attracted to both compounds. On the other hand,
when the ratio of Id or Ie to cV was 10:1 or 0.1:1 rather than 1; 1, they
affected the numbers of I. typographus attracted. A small amount of Id
combined with the attractants increased trap catch, while large amounts of Id
or Ie decreased attraction, especially when combined. Attack density
regulation is modeled as an effect of both quantitative and qualitative
mechanisms acting in sequence. LG EN.
Schoenherr, J. 1972. A new pheromone excreted by the pine bark beetle
myelophilus-piniperda coleoptera scolytidae. Z. Angew. Entomol. 71 (4). 410-413.
Schroeder, L.M. 1988. Attraction of the bark beetle tomicus-piniperda and some
other bark and wood-living beetles to the host volatiles alpha pinene and
ethanol. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 46 (3). 203-210. ab The attraction of some bark-
and ambrosia beetles as well as associated beetles to the host voltatiles
.alpha.-pinene and ethanol was studied in field tests with flight barrier
traps. Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Scolytidae), Thanasimus formicarius (L.)
(Cleridae), and Rhizophagus ferrugineus (Payk.) (Rhizophagidae) were attracted
by .alpha.-pinene, while Hylurgops palliatus (Gyll.) and Trypodendron lineatum
(Oliv.) (Scolytidae) were attached by ethanol and Epuraea spp. (Nitidulidae)
by both .alpha.-pinene and ethanol. Combinations of .alpha.-pinene and ethanol
attracted high numbers of H. palliatus, T. lineatum, R. ferrugineus, Epuraea
spp., and Glischrochilus spp. (Nitidulidae) and the catches increased with
increasing release rates of ethanol. By contrast, lower numbers of T.
piniperda were caught in traps baited with combinations of .alpha.-pinene and
ethanol than in traps baited with .alpha.-pinene alone, and the catches of
this species decreased with increasing release rates of ethanol. Traps baited
with a combination of .alpha.-pinene and ethanol or with .alpha.-pinene alone
caught similar numbers of T. formicarius. The results are discussed on the
basis of species differences in preference for breeding substrate. LG EN.
Schroeder, L.M., & Lindelow, A. 1989. Attraction of scolytids and associated
beetles by different absolute amounts and proportions of alpha pinene and
ethanol. J. Chem. Ecol. 15 (3). 807-818. ab The attraction of bark and
ambrosia beetles as well as associated beetles to .alpha.-pinene and ethanol
was studied in field experiments with flight barrier traps. .alpha.-Pinene and
ethanol were released individually and as combinations in approximately 1:1 or
1:10 ratios and at four different release rates. Ethanol attracted Tomicus
piniperda (L.), Hylurgops palliatus (Gyll.), Trypodendron lineatum (Oliv.),
Hylastes cunicularius Er., H. brunneus Er., H. opacus Er., and Anisandrus
dispar (F.) (Scolytidae); Glischrochilus quadripunctatus (L.) and Epuraea spp.
(Nitidulidae); Thanasimus formicarius (L.) (Cleridae); and Rhizophagus
depressus (F.) (Rhizophagidae). .alpha.-Pinene attracted all these species
with the exception of T. lineatum, H. cinicularis, and A. dispar. Combinations
of .alpha. pinene and ethanol resulted in synergistically increased attraction
of all species with exception of H. opacus and A. dispar. A. dispar, the only
hardwood-associated species in the study, was repelled by .alpha.-pinene. Both
the release rates and the ratio at which the two substances were released
influenced the response of the beetles. The differences in response between
the beetle species seem to reflect dissimilarities in the release of the two
substances among the various types of breeding material to which the species
are adapted. LG EN.
Schroeder, L.M., & Weslien, J. 1994. Interactions between the phloem-feeding
species Tomicus piniperda (Col.: Scolytidae) and Acanthocinus aedilis (Col.:
Cerambycidae), and the predator Thanasimus formicarius (Col.: Cleridae) with
special reference to brood production. Entomophaga 39 (2). 149-157. Issn
0013-8959. ab Interactions between Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Col.: Scolytidae).
Acanthocinus aedilis (L.) (Col.: Cerambycidae) and Thanasimus formicarius (L.)
(Col.: Cleridae) were investigated in caged pine bolts. The treatments were T.
piniperda alone, A. aedilis alone. T. piniperda together with A. aedilis, T.
piniperda together with T. formicarius and all three species together. T.
piniperda offspring production per m-2 was reduced by 92% when reared with T.
formicarius, by 78% when reared with A. aedilis, and by 94% when all three
species were reared together, compared with T. piniperda reared alone. A.
aedilis had a negative influence on the offspring production of T. formicarius
and vice versa. When both species were present in the same bolt (together with
T. piniperda) offspring production was reduced by 74% for A. aedilis and by
42% for T. formicarius compared with their respective production values when
each species was present alone with the bark beetle. The new generation of T.
formicarius emerged as larvae from June to August while most of the A. aedilis
offspring emerged as adults from September to October, leaving only a few
larvae in the bolts to hibernate. A. aedilis only reproduced in a small part
of one of the bolts without bark beetles. LG EN.
Secq, M. 1986. Contribution to the knowledge of the cleridae of dordogne
france coleoptera. Bull. Soc. Linn. Bord. 14 (4). 155-160.
Selander, J., & Nuorteva, M. 1980. Use of synthetic pheromones for the control
of spruce bark beetles in a heavily infested spruce stand. Silva. Fenn. 14
(2). 113-121. ab The dying-off of trees, in an overaged Norway spruce stand,
caused by Ips bark beetles was reduced by a pheromone preparation, ipslure.
Some 20 preparations placed in trapping bolts captured > 13,700 specimens of
I. typographus and I. duplicatus, which corresponded to a saving of 5 old
trees in this valuable exhibition and seed collection stand. Attractance of
ipslure to the following predators of bark beetles was also examined:
Thanasimus formicarius, T. rufipes, Epuraca bickhardti, Rhizophagus
ferrugineus and Pityophagus ferrugineus. LG FI.
Svihra, P. 1972. Survey of the seasonal flight pattern of ips-typographus with
an attractant trap in slovakia. Z. Angew. Entomol. 72 (1). 80-92.
Tommeras, B.A. 1985. Specialization of the olfactory receptor cells in the
bark beetle ips-typographus and its predator thanasimus-formicarius to bark
beetle pheromones and host tree volatiles. J. Comp. Physiol. A. Sens. Neural.
Behav. Physiol. 157 (3). 335-342. ab Olfactory receptor cells of the spruce
bark beetle, Ips typographus, and its predator, the clerid beetle Thanasimus
formicarius were studied using electrophysiological techniques. Recordings
were made of nerve impulses from single cells and of the summated receptor
potential (electroantenogram). Information from bark beetle pheromones and
host volatiles is detected by separate olfactory receptor cells in L.
typographus. Those which detected bark beetle pheromones responded to only one
key substance. Some receptor cells which responded to spruce bark volatiles
were strongly activated by one of the synthetic host compounds tested.
However, too few host compounds were tested to reach definite conclusions
about the specialization of host odour cells. T. formicarius has evolved
olfactory receptor cells for bark beetles pheromones. These have similar
specificities ('specialist types') to those of the bark beetles. Furthermore,
the predator has olfactory receptor cells for many bark beetle pheromones.
This indicates tht T. formicarius is able to detect and discriminate between
many bark beetle species. No significant differences were found between prey
and predator cells which responded to host volatiles. LG EN.
Tommeras, B.A. 1988. The clerid beetle thanasimus-formicarius is attracted to
the pheromone of the ambrosia beetle trypodendron-lineatum. Experientia.
Basel. 44 (6). 536-537. ab Sticky traps containing (+)-lineatin, the pheromone
of the ambrosia beetle, Trypodendron lineatum attracted the predator
Thanasimus formicarius to about the same extent as traps baited with ipslure,
the pheromone blend used for mass-trapping Ips typographus. The results
indicate that T. lineatum is an important prey for T. formicarius early in the
season before the main prey becomes active. Addition of exo-brevicomin to
ipslure and ethanol and/or .alpha.-pinene to (+)-lineatin did not
significantly influence the catches of the predator. LG EN.
Tommeras, B.A., & Mustaparta, H. 1984. Insect chemoreception predator-prey
relationship. Scandinavian Physiological Society Meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark,
Apr. 28-29, 1984 Acta-physiol-scand 121 (3). 8a.
Tommeras, B.A., & Mustaparta, H. 1985. Olfactory receptor cells of
thanasimus-formicarius specialized to single prey pheromone compounds.
Naturwissenschaften 72 (11). 604-606.
Triggiani, O. 1984. Tomicus-piniperda l. coleoptera scolytidae hylesininae
biology damage and control in the ionic coast italy. Entomologica. Bari. 19
(0). 5-22. ab T. piniperdae is one of the most serious pests on pine woods on
the Ionic-coast (Southern-Italy) which are often set on fire in summer and
heavily crowded. The first top of T. piniperdae adults has been observed in
poor physiological conditioned Pine from the end of September to March. At the
end of March the rising generation of adults attachs new Pine shoots in order
to feed. First hatched larve have been noticed under the bark from October and
are particularly abundant from November to April. During the year the eggs,
the different stages of larvae and the pupae are often present, produced by T.
piniperdae females without a "partner". A second extremely poor top of adults
has been observed in Pine trunks during the second half of May. The natural
enemies and the symbiont Nematodes are: Coleoptera Histeridae: Plegaderus otti
Mar. and Cylister elongatus Oliv., Coleoptera Cleridae: Thanasimus formicarius
L., Coleoptera Tenebrionidae: Hypoploeus fraxini Kug. ; Hymenoptera
Braconidae: Dendrosoter middendorfii Rat. and Pteromalidae: Metacolus (?) sp.
; Neuroptera Rhaphidiidae: Raphidia sp. ; Nematoda Rhabditidae:
Parasitorhabditis piniperda (Fuchs, 1937) Ruhm 1956, and the Aphelendroididae:
Parasitaphelenchus papillatus (Fuchs); the Fungus: Beauveria bassiana Vuill.
An efficient way in controlling T. piniperda is by using of "bait trunks" in
open areas from the half of September. LG IT.
Tsankov, G., Mirchev, P., & Ovcharov, D. 1994. Insect pests and their role in
silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) withering and decline in Bulgaria. Nauka. Za.
Gorata. 31 (3). 23-33. Issn 0861-007x. ab In silver fir stands in the region
of Smolian, Bansko, Rakitovo and Kostenetz during the 1991-1993 period are
performed investigations for revealing the role of the insect pests in the
large-scale withering of silver fir. The following is established: 1. From the
bark beetles the largest scale damages cause Pityocteines curvidens, P.
spinidens and Cryphalus piceae. The first one is installing in the zone of the
deep bark and the other two ones in the thin bark and in the branches. 2. For
the conditions of our country the first two species give two generations. The
first generation flies away in June and the second in August. This defines the
necessity of a first sanitary felling performed in June and second - in
August. 3. Besides the bark beetles silver fir is attacked on a large scale by
Pissodes piceae. This insect gives only one generation per year. From the
layed in May eggs, the larvas manage to develop to imago till the end of
August. The young beetles spend the winter in the forest litter or in other
shelters. From the eggs layed later in the season the larvae spend the winter.
4. On a third place in order but not in importance is the large scale attack
by Acanthocinus reticulatus. This insect as already mentioned ones are new as
a large scale pests for silver fir in Bulgaria. This insect spends the winter
as adult in the forest litter and as larva in the fir stems. A sanitary
felling in June and August decreases its number. 5. Under the bark of the
withering silver fir trees are established the following predatory insects:
Nodobius lentus Grap. (Staphilinidae), Nemosoma elongatum L. (Ostomatidae),
Tanasimus formicarius L. (Cleridae) and Laemophloeus ferrugineus Steph.
(Coryliidae). They play an important role in destroying the bark beetles. LG BU.
Wachmann, E. 1981. The fine structure of the ommatidia of robber wasps
coleoptera cucujiformia cleridae. Zool. Beitr. 27 (2-3). (1982). 449-458. ab
The structure of the eyes of different species (Thanasimus formicarius,
Trichodes apiarius, T. alvearius, Pseudoclerops mutillarius and Corynetes
coeruleus) belonging to the family Cleridae was investigated with EM. Each
ommatidium possesses a dioptric apparatus consisting of the corneal lens and 4
Semper cells. As a special feature in Cleridae the nuclei of the Semper cells
are situated in the very proximal parts of the cells just above the tips of
the rhabdomeres. The rhabdom belongs to the so-called open type. The central
retinula cells 7 and 8 are separated from the 6 peripheral ones by larger or
smaller distances or, they have contact with the rhabdomeres of cell 1 and 4
only. The rhabdomeres of the different species in this family show different
kinds of microvilli alignments. The larval stemmata persist in the imago.
Their rhabdoms remain well organized and their cytoplasm contains a great
amount of mitochondria, multivesicular bodies and other organelles. Their
special function beneath the heavily pigmented imaginal compound eye remains
unknown. LG GE.
Weslien, J. 1994. Interactions within and between species at different
densities of the bark beetle Ips typographus and its predator Thanasimus
formicarius. Entomologia. Experimentalis. Et. Applicata. 71 (2). 133-143. Issn
0013-8703. ab Interactions between the bark beetle Ips typographus and one of
its predators, Thanasimus formicarius, were investigated in caged spruce logs
containing both species in eight different density combinations. Productively
(offspring per female) of Ips was adversely affected by high Ips gallery
density as well as high Thanasimus density. Thanasimus productivity was
enhanced by high Ips gallery density but negatively affected by high
Thanasimus density. Ips productivity and Thanasimus developmental rate
differed between tree individuals, probably owing to tree-related differences
in phloem thickness. Relative predator-caused Ips mortality was ca 20% higher
at high gallery density (ca 300 egg galeries per m-2) than at low gallery
density (ca 100 egg galleries per m-2), indicating that mortality was density
dependent. This difference was due to the fact that Thanasimus larval density
was positively related to Ips gallery density. Mortality increased by ca 0.4%
with each additional Thanasimus larva per m-2, independently of gallery
density. Relative population levels of Ips and Thanasimus were monitored with
pheromone traps in two regions differing in their Ips typographus outbreak
history. Absolute catch as well as the Thanasimus/Ips catch ratio were ten
times greater in the outbreak region than in the non-outbreak region. Coupled
with the results in the caging experiment, this indicates that T. formicarius
responds numerically to changes in I. typographus numbers per unit bark area
as well as to Ips population changes at the regional level. The findings
suggest that predation under bark may be a significant factor in supressing I.
typographus outbreaks. LG EN.
Wootton, A. 1980. Some interesting finds of over wintering insects. Entomol.
Rec. J. Var. 92 (11-12). 290-293.
Zondag, R. 1979. Breeding of the clerid thanasimus-formicarius for the control
of the bark beetles hylastes-ater and hylurgus-ligniperda in new-zealand. N.
Z. J. For. Sci. 9 (2). 125-132. ab In Sept. 1976, 214 adults and 165 larvae of
the predatory clerid T. formicarius L. were received from the Commonwealth
Institute of Biological Control station in Austria. A successful breeding and
rearing technique was developed; by July 1977, 364 adults were reared and by
June 1978, a further 1081. Liberations were made in several forests in the
North Island (176 adults were released in 1977 and 616 and 1978), but no field
recoveries have yet been made, and breeding will continue for at least another
year. The difficulties encountered with breeding are discussed, and
suggestions are made on how the technique could be improved. LG EN.
Zumr, V. 1983. Effect of pheroprax synthetic pheromones on the coleopterous
predators of the spruce bark beetle ips-typographus. Z. Angew. Entomol. 95
(1). 47-50. ab Pheroprax synthetic-aggregation pheromones placed in traps act
as kairomones for predators of the spruce bark beetle I. typographus (L.). The
clerid Thanasimus formicarius made up 32.3% of the total number of predators
caught in the years 1980 and 1981; the staphylinids Placusa tachyporoides
28.6%, Quedius laevigatus 4.5%, Nudobius lentus 48%; the ostomid Nemosoma
elongatum 14.3%; the nitidulids Rhizophagus ferrugineus 4.3% and R. depressus
1.6%, Epuraea ruformarginata 9.6%. LG EN.
Zumr, V. 1983. The use of lineatin against the lineate bark beetle
trypodendron-lineatum coleoptera scolytidae. Z. Angew. Entomol. 96 (4).
391-396. ab The lineate bark beetle, T. lineatum (Ol.), is one of the most
serious pest among bark beetles. Its aggregation pheromone, Lineatin, has
already been synthesized. It was tested in 3 kinds of traps in field
experiment: 2-walled barriers of the window type, 4-walled funnel-shaped
barriers and Borregaard drainpipe traps. The experiments were performed in 3
variants of spruce (Picea) stands in the Bohemian Forest, southern Bohemia
(Czechoslovakia). A total of 11,655 adult T. lineatum were caught in the
Lineatin traps, 31.0% of them in the 2-walled window-like barriers, 54.9% in
the 4-walled funnel barriers and 14.1% in the Borregaard drainpipe traps. The
sex ratio (males:females) of the T. lineatum captured was 1:0.8. Swarming
began at the maximum air temperature of 17.7.degree. C. The following beetles
besides T. lineatum: were caught in the Lineatin traps Thanasimus formicarius
(L.), Epuraea laeviuscula Gyll. and Rhizophagus bipustulatus Fbr. LG EN.
Zumr, V. 1988. The effectiveness of the aggregation pheromone chalcoprax in
the control of spruce wood engraver pityogenes-chalcographus l. coleoptera
scolytidae. Lesnictvi. Prague. 34 (6). 489-498. ab The effectiveness of the
aggregation pheromone Chalcoprax was studied as far as for the control of
spruce wood engraver Pityogenes chalcographus (L,) in four variants of spruce
stands located in Southern Bohemia (Czechoslovakia). Using Chalcoprax, the
following features were specified in greater detail: the beginning of swarming
and flitting of spruce weed engraver beetles, sex ratio and attractivity for
the natural enemies of the given pest. The beginning of spruce wood engraver
swarming and flitting is influenced in a decisive manner by the temperature.
The swarming begins at the avreage daily air temperature (tmax) of
14.2.degree.C. Intensive flitting begins at tmax = 18.0-20.0.degree.C, with
the maximum at tmax = 25.0.degree.C. Out of the total number of spruce wood
engravers that had been trapped, 39.9% of male beetles were caught in the
pheromone traps; the total of 212 980 spruce wood engraver individuals were
caught in twenty pheromone traps in all variants of spruce stands. The highest
numbers of spruce wood engravres were caught at a clearing (variant C) -110
300 individuals and the lowest numbers along the border of spruce pole stand
-9040 individuals (variant D). As to the predators, Nemosoma elongatum (L.)
was repersented in the highest numbers-60.1%; the following percent were 18.8
in Nudobius lentus Grav., 12.3 in Thanasimus formicarius (L.) and 8.8 in
Paromalus parallelopipedus Hrbst. Using the aggregation pheromone, not only
the occurrence of spruce wood engraver can be well monitored in the forest
stand but also of the natural enemies of this beetle, and its ecological
demands can be invesigated in greater detail. LG CZ.