Literature - Hylotrupes bajulus
Compiled by John A. Byers

Baonza, M.V., & Prieto, G. 1990. Validity of a new laboratory method to
determine the wood preservative effectiveness against Hylotrupes bajulus
L. larvae. Invest. Agrar. Prod. Prot. Veg. 5 (3). 463-474. abstract--
Laboratory test were made to value the validity of a new alternating
method of laboratory at EN 22 about the determination of the curative
action against larvae of Hylotrupes bajulus L. The changes proposed in
the new method affect fundamentaly the kind of wood specimen used in the
test. Greater percentages of mortality were obtained in the alternative
method, because the larvae were subjected to more drastic conditions than
in the original method. Some proposals to solve the defects observed in
the alternative method were explained.  Language SP.█LABORATORIO
PROTECCION DE MADERAS, DPTO INDUSTRIAS FORESTALES, CIT-INIA, APARTADO
8111, 28080 MADRID, SPAIN

Breidbach, O. 1986. Studies on the stridulation of Hylotrupes bajulus
Cerambycidae Coleoptera communication through support vibration
morphology and mechanics of the signal. Behav. Processes. 12 (2).
169-186. abstract-- The stridulation of Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) is
examined with respect to ethology and functional morphology. The
morphology outlines a defined species-specific structure. Biophysical
aspects of sound emission are discussed. The sound pattern of
stridulation is described. It time structure is species-specific. Only
the vibrational component of stridulation is an effective signal in the
intraspecific communication of H. bajulus. It is a part of aggressive
behaviour, where it constitutes menacing or impressing elements. It is
also found within the mating behaviour, where it forms a part of the
tactile stimulation of the female by the male beetle. The 'open'
organisation of the behaviour analysed is of interest. This open
arrangement of the behaviour is somewhat surprising in view of the
complex differentiation of the morphology. The specificity of the
ethological structures is discussed. Language EN.█INST
ENTWICKLUNGSPHYSIOLOGIE, GYROHFSTR 17, D-5000 KOELN 41, FRG

Becker, G. 1979. Influence of local geo magnetic and other physical
conditions on various insects. Z. Angew. Zool. 66 (4). 391-416. abstract-
- Experiments were conducted at various locations in a air conditioned
room (27.degree. C) and in containers of Al, Cu, thick Fe and MU metal
as well as in a Helmholtz coil which largely compensated the vertical,
component of the geomagnetic field. Determined were: the lifespan of
termites kept without food; the reproduction of groups of Rhinotermitidae
(Microcerotermes championi Snyder, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki,
Mastotermes darwininiensis Frogatt and Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann))
with neotenic reproductives and their gallery building activity; the
development of incipient colonies of Kalotermitidae (Neotermes jouteli
(Banks) and Incisitermes marginipennis (Latreille)); the number of
imagines and their development period of a Coleoptera (Lyctus africanus
Lesne) and lepidopteran species (Tincola biselliella Hum.) which were
observed from the time of egg laying (taking into accont the location of
the groups as well as the larval development of 2 other coleopteran
species (Stegobium paniceum L. and Hylotrupes bajulus (L.))). Results
differed according to location and metal container. They differed also
with regard to the developmental stages of the insects and the types of
experiments. When the geomagnetic field was changed to reduce its
horizontal component, development and egg production increased. An area
with an enlarged horizontal component and possibly another unknown field
deviation slowed development, and in 2 cases decreased egg production.
A compensation of the vertical component of the geomagnetic field partly
retarded development. An alternating magnetic field in the room
stimulated termite gallery building activity. Al and MU metal shieldings
slowed some developmental processes down. Because the differences in
results between the individual locations in the same room may be
considerable, it is imperative to consider these differences in future
tests. The influence of magnetic and electric fields on insect
development must be thoroughly investigated.  Language GE.█VON-LAUE-STR
14, D-1000 BERLIN 33, W GER

Becker, G. 1979. Contributions to the biology of rhoptrocentrus-piceus
a parasite of the old-house borer Hylotrupes bajulus. Z. Angew. Entomol.
88 (5). 520-527. abstract-- R. piceus Marsh. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)
is a parasite of the old house borer, H. bajulus (L.). The body length
of the males is 1.2-3.5 mm, the females 2.8-4.6 mm and their stinger
2.5-5.5 mm. A female can kill and infest with eggs up to 4 Hylotrupes
larvae, but may paralyze even more individuals. Depending on the
ecological conditions, the lifetime of the females is 1-4 wk. Development
from egg-laying to the appearance of imagines, where time of larval
feeding is less than 1 /3, takes 23 days (average) at 28.degree. C. At
lower temperature it takes longer. The number of progency varies and
depends on the size of the Hylotrupes larva. The ratio of females to
males was 9:1, but may vary. Parthenogenesis produces males. Properties
of the species as a parasite of H. bajulus are discussed.  Language
GE.█VON-LAUE-STR 14, D-1000 BERLIN 33, W GER

Becker, H. 1976. The distribution of the oldhouse borer Hylotrupes
bajulus Coleoptera Cerambycidae part 3. Z. Angew. Entomol. 80 (3).
272-275. abstract-- Based on new information, the distribution of H.
bajulus is reviewed especially in Germany, Norway, Poland, Italy, the
Netherlands, USA and Australia.

Cannon, K.F., & Robinson, W.H. 1985. Wood consumption growth and
respiration of old house borer larvae Hylotrupes bajulus Coleoptera:
Cerambycidae. Mater. Org. (berl) 20 (4). 311-320. abstract-- Wood
consumption, growth and respiration by 3 weight classes of Hylotrupes
bajulus larvae, under 5 constant temperatures at constant relative
humidity, were studied. Wood consumption in all larval weight classes was
greatest in the temperature range of 20.degree. to 30.degree. C, and
significantly reduced below and above these temperatures. Growth rates
for small larvae were not significantly different among temperatures.
Medium and large larvae exhibited negative growth rates at 15.degree. and
35.degree. C. The effects of temperature were evident in low and high
respiration values for medium and large larvae at 15.degree. and
35.degree. C. Respiration rates were highest for small larvae.
Developmental rates of H. bajulus larvae are affected by extremes of
temperature; medium and large larvae are affected to a greater extent by
changes in temperature than small larvae. These results are in close
agreement with those obtained for other wood feeding Coleoptera with
similar life histories. Slow growth is associated with low consumption
index (CI) in wood feeding insects which require more than one year to
develop. The CI for H. bajulus larvae, which require 2-11 years to
develop, ranged from 0.042 to 0.600 mg/mg/day. Temperature was a major
factor in determining the CI. The CI values for H. bajulus are low when
compared to leaf feeding Coleoptera (0.97 mg/mg/day) with univoltine life
cycles.  Language EN.█MONSANTO CHEMICAL CO AGRICULTURE DIVISION, ST
LOUIS, MISSOURI 63166 USA

Cannon, K.F., & Robinson, W.H. 1983. The north america biotype of the old
house borer Hylotrupes bajulus Coleoptera: Cerambycidae. Proc. Entomol.
Soc. Wash. 85 (1). 104-109. abstract-- Results of this study establish
the presence of a North American biotype on the old house borer, H.
bajulus (L.). This biotype is based on differences in size and longevity
of the life stages and on adult fecundity. The description of this
biotype is based on 3 yr of field laboratory data and comparisons between
the European and South African biotypes.  Language EN.█DEP ENTOMOL, VA
POLYTECH INST STATE UNIV, BLACKSBURG, VA 24061, USA

Cannon, K.F., & Robinson, W.H. 1982. An artificial diet for the
laboratory rearing of the old house borer Hylotrupes bajulus Coleoptera:
Cerambycidae. Can. Entomol. 114 (8). 739-742. abstract-- H. bajulus (L.)
was successfully reared from egg to adult in 9-11 mo. on an artificial
diet. The diet provided an adequate physical and nutritional environment
for the development of old house borer larvae. Mortality and rearing time
were reduced when larvae reared on artificial diet were compared with
those reared by conventional methods. Language EN.█DEP OF ENTOMOL, VA
POLYTECHNIC INST AND STATE UNIV, BLACKSBURG, VA 24061-5796

Cannon, K.F., & Robinson, W.H. 1981. Egg production and mating behavior
of the old house borer Hylotrupes bajulus Coleoptera: Cerambycidae.
Mater. Org. (berl) 16 (4). 303-310. abstract-- Observations of the adult
old house borer, H. bajulus, mating behavior, fecundity, oviposition
period and egg viability are reported under 2 mating regimes: single and
multiple. Fecundity and egg viability were not significantly different
between regimes. The number of egg batches, length of oviposition period
and the longevity of adult females were significantly different. Adult
behavior between regimes was not different. Males actively compete for
females when other males are present and aggressive interactions are
common. The practical and evolutionary significance of single and
multiple matings is discussed.  Language EN.█DEP ENTOMOL, VPI AND SU,
BLACKSBURG, VIRGINIA 24060
Cannon, K.F., & Robinson, W.H. 1981. Wood consumption and growth of
Hylotrupes bajulus larvae in 3 environments. Environ. Entomol. 10 (4).
458-461. abstract-- The combined effects of temperature, relative
humidity (RH) and wood moisture content (WMC) on wood consumption and
growth of H. bajulus larvae in 3 locations are reported. The locations
and environmental conditions during the 90-day experiment were: house
basement, 24.8 .+-. 0.68.degree. C, 78.1 .+-. 3.4% RH, 8.7% WMC: house
attic, 24.5 .+-. 10.8.degree. C, 75.5 .+-. 9.5% RH, 7.6% WMC; laboratory,
29.6 .+-. 2.3.degree. C, 81.9 .+-. 5.5% RH, 10.1% WMC. Larvae (n = 16)
in the laboratory consumed the largest amount of wood (2959 mg/larva).
The wood consumed by larvae (n = 16) in the basement (2398 mg/larva) was
not significantly different from those in the laboratory. Larvae (n = 17)
in the attic consumed less wood (1086 mg/larva) than those in the
laboratory or basement. Results indicate that despite a significant
difference between weight classes, small larvae (mean = 55.3 mg, n = 15)
consumed nearly the same amount of wood as medium (mean = 151.5, n = 16)
and large (mean = 296.9, n = 18) larvae in each location.  Language
EN.█DEP OF ENTOMOL, VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INST AND STATE UNIV BLACKSBURG,
VIRGINIA 24061

Doppelreiter, H. 1980. The toxicity of diflubenzuron dimilin to newly
hatched larvae of Hylotrupes bajulus. Mater. Org. (berl) 15 (1). 47-52.
abstract-- The toxicity of the synthetic developmental inhibitor
diflubenzuron to freshly hatched larvae of the house longhorn beetle (H.
bajulus (L.)) was investigated by following a standard test method. The
toxic values after 8 and 12 wk of incubation, causing either complete
kill or marginal survival, varied from 0.25-0.12 kg and from 0.06-0.03
kg /m3 wood, respectively. Because of its mode of action, there were
surviving larvae after 4 wk, despite an increased concentration of 0.8%
(.apprx. 5 kg/m3). The need for further laboratory tests was pointed out,
involving the applicability of diflubenzuron in wood preservation, its
persistence and application.  Language GE.█BUNDESFORSCHUNGSANST FORST
HOLZWIRTSCHAFT, INST HOLZBIOL HOLZSCH, LEUSCHNERSTR 91D, D-2050 HAMBURG
80, W GER

Doppelreiter, H. 1979. Evidence for a female sex pheromone in the house
longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus. Z. Angew. Entomol. 88 (1). 56-59.
abstract-- The occurrence of a female sex pheromone in the house longhorn
beetle, H. bajulus (L.), was demonstrated in laboratory bioassays. Male
beetles recognized female wings within the close range of olfactory
orientation. After dorsal contact of virgin females of 3 days, pine wood
substrates proved to be scent-marked, as indicated by more frequent and
prolonged beetle visits. Tests based on male beetles without antennae
showed no corresponding bioactivity. The pheromone elicited
characteristic a behavior by the male, consisting of excited searching
as well as occasional copulation attempts with single wings.  Language
GE.█INST HOLZBIOL BUNDESFORSCHUNGSANST, LEUSCHNERSTR 91D, D-2000 HAMBURG
80, W GER

Fettoether, R., Dettner, K., Schroeder, F., Meyer, H., Francke, W., &
Noldt, U. 1995. The male pheromone of the old house borer Hylotrupes
bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Identification and female
response. Experientia 51 (3). 270-277. Issn 0014-4754. abstract-- We
report here the identification of the long-range, male-produced sex
pheromone of the Old house borer Hylotrupes bajulus. Chemical analysis
of hexane extracts obtained by surface extraction from dissected
prothoracic glands and from headspace samples of the two sexes, revealed
male-specific compounds: (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, 2-hydroxy-3-hexanone,
the diastereomeric diols (2R,3R)-2,3-hexanediol and
(2S,3R)-2,3-hexanediol, 2,3-hexanedione, as well as 1-butanol. In wind
tunnel bioassays we tested the influence of these male-specific compounds
from the prothoracal glands on the behaviour of unmated and mated
females. Specific behavioural sequences of the tested females (activity,
running behaviour, searching, cleaning, flying, extension of ovipositor)
were recorded. Unmated females were attracted by male beetles, headspace
extracts of males, synthetic blends of the major pheromone compounds as
well as by the components (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, and the
diastereomeric diols. Hexane, female beetles and 2,3-hexanedione did not
attract unmated females. The reactions of mated females to male beetles
and headspace samples did not differ significantly from those of the
controls. The results of the bioassays show that the two-stage premating
behaviour is initiated by emission of a long-range sex pheromone from the
male prothoracal glands, which functions as an activator, attractant, and
possibly aphrodisiac for unmated females.  Language EN.█Lehrstuhl
Tieroekol II, Univ Bayreuth, Postfach 101251, NW1, D-95440 Bayreuth,
Germany

Graf, E., Manser, P., & Schmitter, M. 1989. Influence of the vitality of
spruce picea-abies l. karst. and fir abies-alba mill. on the resistance
of construction timber against newly hatched larvae of the house longhorn
beetle Hylotrupes bajulus l. Mater. Org. (berl) 24 (2). 93-106. abstract-
- With decreasing vitality of the trees an increasing resistance of the
construction timber of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and fir (Abies
alba Mill.) against house longhorn beetles can be considered which, at
least, manifests itself in a retardation of the development of larvae.
The conditions for the development of newly hatched larvae in supporting
construction elements can further be worsened by using spruce rather than
fir and, in general, by a sawcut which removes bast and outer,
nutrient-rich sapwood from the construction element. This measure is
particularly appropriate for the evidently still more susceptible pine
and larch sapwood. Language GE.█EIDGENOESSISCHE MATERIALPRUEFUNGS
VERSUCHSANSTALT, ABT BIOL, UNTERSTR 11, CH-9001 ST GALLEN, SWITZERLAND

Higgs, M.D., & Evans, D.A. 1978. Chemical mediators in the oviposition
behavior of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus. Experientia.
Basel. 34 (1). 46-47.
Jacquiot, C., Guillemain, Thevenot, J., Romeis, M., & Lamour, M. 1974.
Contribution to research on controlling treatments against larvae of
Hylotrupes bajulus part 3 chemical investigations. Mater. Org. (berl) 9
(1). 73-77.

Kuehne, H., & Becker, G. 1974. On the biology and ecology of
scleroderma-domesticum bethylidae hymenoptera a parasite of wood
destroying insect larvae. Z. Angew. Entomol. 76 (3). 278-303.

Koerting, A. 1970. Experimental investigations on the development of
Hylotrupes bajulus house long horn beetle in fir-g. Mater. Org. (berl)
5 (4). 241-254.

Mares, J.T., Pospischil, R., & Robinson, W.H. 1986. Structure and
function of the ovipositor of Hylotrupes bajulus L. Coleoptera:
Cerambycidae. Mater. Org. (berl) 21 (1). 15-30. abstract-- The female
Hylotrupes bajulus has an elongated ovipositor comprised of the modified
abdominal segments 8 and 9, intersegmental membrane 8 /9, and a pair of
distal gonostyli. When not in use, the ovipositor is retracted within
abdominal segment 7. The 8th abdominal segment forms the proximal end of
the ovipositor. An internal apodeme attached to the base of the 8th
sternite allows for extension and retraction of the ovipositor. The
intersegmental membrane 8/9 can be elongated up to more than 24 mm and
allows egg-laying in cracks more than 30 mm deep. The 9th sternum is
split along the midline to form a pair of hemisternites. The gonostyli
are comprised of basal coxies and apical styli. Several types of sensory
receptors are located on the ovipositor. Segment 8 has long tactile hairs
and short trichoid sensilla; intersegmental membrane 8/9 has no visible
sensory receptors; segment 9 has campaniform sensilla and short trichoid
sensilla. The gonostyli have several types of sensory receptors,
including long tactile hairs, medium trichoid sensilla, short trichoid
sensilla, and basiconic sensilla. The general orientation of the female
before oviposition is guided by light and the odor of bicyclic terpenes.
On a suitable surface the cracks are probed with mechanoreceptors of the
9th segment. Cracks with rough surfaces are preferred which are 0.25 mm
to 0.16 mm wide at a depth of 20 mm. During oviposition, usually only the
intersegmental membrane and the 9th segment are in the crack. The tactile
hairs of the styli apparently control the placement of the eggs in the
crack. The eggs pass down the ovipositor in 3.3 to 11 seconds. The
ovipositor can be extended to a length of 35 mm.  Language EN.█DEP
ENTOMOL, VA POLYTECHNIC INST STATE UNIV, BLACKSBURG, VA 24061

Mares, J.T., & Robinson, W.H. 1986. Structure of the ovipositor of
Hylotrupes bajulus Coleoptera: Cerambycidae. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 79
(2). 344-349. abstract-- The female of Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) has an
elongated ovipositor comprising modified abdominal segments 8 and 9,
intersegmental membrane 8/9, and a pair of distal gonostyli. When not in
use, the ovipositor is retracted within abdominal segment 7. An internal
apodeme attached to the base of the 8th sternite allows for extension and
retraction of the ovipositor. Intersegmental membrane 8/9 makes up half
the length of the ovipositor. The 9th sternum is split along the midline
to form a pair of hemisternites. The gonostyli comprise basal coxites and
apical styli. Segment 8 has long tactile hairs and short trichoid
sensilla; intersegmental membrane 8/9 has no visible sensory receptors;
segment 9 has campaniform sensilla and short trichoid sensilla. Gonostyli
have several types of sensory receptors, including long tactile hairs,
medium trichoid sensilla, short trichoid sensilla, and basiconic
sensilla. Long tactile hairs and campaniform sensilla are innervated by
a single dendrite, thus functioning as mechanoreceptors. Medium trichoid
sensilla are innervated by three dendrites, two of which extend into the
lumen of the receptor. Short trichoid sensilla are innervated by five
sensory neurons. Basiconic sensilla are innervated by 1-3 dendrites,
depending on type and location of the receptor. All three types of
sensilla function as contact chemoreceptors, and may provide information
on suitability of the oviposition substrate.  Language EN.█MOBAY CHEMICAL
CO, STANLEY RES CENT, KANSAS CITY, MO 66085

Mares, J.T., & Robinson, W.H. 1985. The old house borer Hylotrupes
bajulus and wood damage go hand-in-hand. Pest. Control. 53 (2). 31-32,
34-38.█ENTOMOL DEP, VA POLYTECH INST STATE UNIV, BLACKSBURG, VA
Marovic, R. 1976. The control of Hylotrupes bajulus in wooden houses.
Zast. Bilja. 27 (136). 181-186. abstract-- The protection against H.
bajulus of a house built of Norway spruce (Picea excelsa) and of Austrian
pine (Pinus nigra) wood was studied. Xyloline (oil preparation with 3%
lindane) and Balsamal (oil preparation with 2% lindane and 2% malathion)
were injected into the fissures at 250 cm3/m2 of plank. The insecticides
were applied once in 1962 and the result was observed for 5 yr. Both
insecticides showed 100% efficiency.  Language SR.█INST FOR AND WOOD IND,
BEOGRAD, YUGOSL

Noldt, U., Fettkother, R., & Dettner, K. 1995. Structure of the sex
pheromone-producing prothoracic glands of the male old house borer,
Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). International.
Journal. Of. Insect. Morphology. And. Embryology. 24 (2). 223-234. Issn
0020-7322. abstract-- Pheromone glands were discovered in the prothorax
of male Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera : Cerambycidae). These
exocrine glands were investigated by SEM and light microscopy. Almost the
entire prothorax is internally lined with a glandular matrix composed of
numerous heap-like complex glands. Each gland is divided into several
subunits ("pore field units"), which in turn are composed of a varying
number of glandular units. The glandular unit comprises a distal
voluminous glandular cell, a medial (intercalary) canal cell I, and a
minute canal cell II near the cuticle. The spindle-like, basally
constricted receiving canal of the gland cell leads into the long,
non-porous conducting canal, which, by a single cuticle canal, opens in
an external pore field, an aggregate of orifices of other such cuticle
canals. In varying numbers, these randomly arranged pore fields are
located in superficial pits that are distributed over nearly the entire
prothorax. The structure of these male sex pheromone glands is discussed
in comparison with other known glands in species of Coleoptera
characterized by multicellular aggregations and by pore plates. Language
EN.█Bundesforschungsanstalt Forst- Holzwirtschaft, Inst Holzbiol
Holzschutz, Leuschnerstrasse 91, 21027 Hamburg, Germany

Powell, P.K., & Robinson, W.H. 1991. Penetration and permanence of wood
treatment insecticides in structural softwoods part i. chlorpyrifos.
Mater. Org. (berl) 26 (2). 81-93. abstract-- Rough-surfaced versus
smooth-surfaced wood has a significant effect on uptake and absorption
of chlorpyrifos (Dursban TC), with rough surfaces tending to absorb
liquid more readily. The effect of wood surface orientation may or may
not have a significant effect at reducing penetration of liquid
insecticides, excluding the possibility of direct runoff or dripping of
the liquid. Penetration of chlorpyrifos after 24 hours is significantly
greater in southern yellow pine than in northern hard pine, spruce, or
fir. Initial surface concentrations, vulnerable to volatile loss over
time, are lower in southern yellow pine; whereas concentrations below the
surface remain more stable for up to 52 months. Initial high surface
concentrations of less permeable woods, i.e. northern hard pine, spruce
and fir, are also lost by volatilization or chemical breakdown.
Below-surface concentrations in these woods generally start out at a low
level and remain low after six months. Two aspects of the biology of
Hylotrupes bajulus are considered when selecting a surface application
of an emulsion formulation of insecticide for treatment of limited
infestations. Because pine is a preferred food for H. bajulus larvae, and
because infestations are frequently not discovered until larvae are two
to three years old, remedial treatment of pine with a surface-applied
emulsion formulation of chlorpyrifos can remain effective until adult
emergence. Treatment of less permeable types of wood indicate an
effective control period of much shorter duration.  Language EN.█VA
POLYTECHNIC INST STATE UNIV, DEP ENTOMOL, URBAN PEST CONTROL RES CENT,
BLACKSBURG, VA 24061-03119

Powell, P., & Robinson, W. 1990. Wood-infesting beetle control answers.
Pest. Control. 58 (4). 66-68.█URBAN PEST CONTROL RES CENT, DEP ENTOMOL,
VA POLYTECHNIC INST AND STATE UNIV, BLACKSBURG, VA

Pallaske, M. 1986. Measurement and analysis of the activity of Hylotrupes
bajulus l. larvae in wood and in an artificial diet by means of modern
electronics. Mater. Org. (berl) 21 (1). 63-79. abstract-- The activities
of Hylotrupes bajulus larvae (house-longhorn beetle) were continually
recorded for many weeks by a micro-computerized acoustic recording
system. The evaluation of the exactly timed activity patterns (5 min
intervals) was carried out by means of a correlation technique and
cluster analysis. In a natural diet (pine sapwood) the activity was
composed of single spurts (lasting from 5 to 180 min) at a relative
humidity of 73%, alternating with phases of almost complete inactivity
(lasting 5 to 25 min). The length of these periods (between 30 and 185
min) varied greatly at a constant temperature (25.degree. C); they are
getting more regular at 12:12 hour temperature changes (18.degree. C:
25.degree. C). In an amorphous artificial diet and at a relative humidity
of 73% and constant temperature of 25.degree. C very stable, although not
very distinct rhythms of activity occurred within periods of 1 to 2 hours
and from 30 to 45 minutes. Under different experimental conditions
(constant temperature, alternating temperature, artificial diet) all
larvae showed an ultradian rhythm of activity (length of time 20 to 25
min). These ultradian rhythms are not very distinct in pine sapwood at
a constant temperature, but they are getting more stable under
alternating temperatures and become clearly evident when an artificial
amorphous diet is offered. The ultradian rhythms of activity are probably
of an endogenous nature.  Language GE.█BEI DER PILZBUCH 38, D-7900
ULM/DONAU

Pallaske, M. 1984. Endogenic short-term periodicity in the activity of
larvae of Hylotrupes bajulus Coleoptera: Cerambycidae a micro computer
based analysis. Zool. Anz. 212 (5-6). 337-342. abstract-- A microcomputer
based method is introduced which allows a continuous recording of mining
insects activity. The activity is represented in 5 min intervals at a
resolution of 8 bit .**GRAPHIC**. 255 counts). Because of the high time
slope resolution it is possible to estimate the covariance function and
spectral density of activity. An endogenic short term periodicity (60
min-90 min period) was found in the larval activity of H. bajulus.
Language GE.█UNIV ULM, ABT BIOL III, OBERER ESELSBERG, D-7900 ULM, DONAU,
BRD

Read, S.J., & Berry, R.W. 1987. The action of synthetic pyrethroid
insecticides in preventive treatments against anobium-punctatum larvae.
Mater. Org. (berl) 22 (4). 297-310. abstract-- In egg-laying tests with
Anobium punctatum the toxic values obtained for 3 synthetic pyrethroid
and 2 organochlorine insecticides were: permethrin 4.0-7.1 g m-3,
cypermethrin 0.8-1.6 g m-3, deltamethrin 0.1-0.3 g m-3, .gamma.HCH
7.6-15.0 g m-3, and dieldrin 1.0-1.9 g m-3. The insecticides showed no
consistent ranking order for effectiveness against egg and mature larvae
of Anobium punctatum and Hylotrupes bajulus. To form a reliable basis for
setting levels for pretreatments against Anobium, results from BS 5437
test are the most relevant because they are obtained using the same
species and stage of development that will challenge the treatment in
service. An unsatisfactory feature of the Anobium egg-laying test in the
high mortality that can occur in controls due to overcrowding. The
synthetic pyrethroids showed no influence on egg-laying by adults at any
of the loadings which permitted larval survival. Language EN.█BUILD RES
ESTABLISHMENT, PRINCES RISBOROUGH LAB, PRINCES RISBOROUGH, AYLESBURY,
BUCKS HP17 9PX, ENGLAND

Robinson, W.H. 1980. Extension agent knowledge of wood infesting insect
pests. Melsheimer. Entomol. Ser. 0 (29). 28-34. abstract-- Cooperative
extension agents are frequently contacted by homeowners for information
on the recognition and control of wood-infesting insects. Agents in
Virginia, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland (USA) were surveyed to
evaluate their level of knowledge of wood-infesting insects. The survey
results show that agents in these states have an adequate understanding
of the biology and damage of subterranean termites (Reticulitermes spp.)
and carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.). The level of knowledge of the old
house borer (Hylotrupes bajulus) is inadequate. Of the agents sampled,
41% felt that homeowners could treat their house for termites. Agents
recognized that fumigation is not the only control method for old house
borer and powderpost beetle infestations. Language EN.█DEP ENTOMOL, VA
POLYTECH INST STATE UNIV, BLACKSBURG, VA 24061

Robinson, W.H., & Cannon, K.F. 1979. The life history and habits of the
old house borer Hylotrupes bajulus and its distribution in pennsylvania
usa. Melsheimer. Entomol. Ser. 0 (27). 30-34. abstract-- The old house
borer (H. bajulus) is an important structural insect pest in eastern USA.
The larval stages of this longhorned beetle feed on the softwoods (pine,
fir and spruce) commonly used in building construction. This insect
spends several years in the larval stage. Adults emerge from infested
wood in early June and continue into July. Soon after mating the female
deposits several batches of eggs. The number of eggs laid per female is
about 175. The eggs hatch in about 9 days, and 1st-instar larvae
immediately bore into the wood. Larvae feed in the wood for 2-6 yr. The
pupal stage is initiated by a cool period. The full-grown larva tunnels
to the surface of the wood and cuts an oval hole, then retreats back into
the tunnel. The pupal period lasts 3-6 wk. The known distribution in
Pennsylvania shows numerous records in the eastern counties, and only a
few for central and western counties. The adult and immature stages are
described and pictured.  Language EN.█DEP ENTOMOL, VA POLYTECH INST STATE
UNIV, BLACKSBURG, VA 24061, USA

Romeis, M., Serment, M.M., Mary, M., & Lamour, M. 1975. Study on the
distribution of pesticides of wood preservatives in wood sections used
for testing the controlling effectiveness of preservatives against
Hylotrupes bajulus part 2. Mater. Org. (berl) 10 (4). 263-273.
Schroeder, F., Fettkoether, R., Noldt, U., Dettner, K., Koenig, W.A., &
Francke, W. 1994. Synthesis of (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone,
(2R,3R)-2,3-hexanediol and (2S,3R)-2,3-hexanediol, the male sex pheromone
of Hylotrupes bajulus and Pyrrhidium sanguineum (Cerambycidae). Liebigs.
Annalen. Der. Chemie. 0 (12). 1211-1218. Issn 0170-2041.█Inst fuer
Organische Chem, Univ Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146
Hamburg, Germany

Seifert, K., & Unger, W. 1994. Insecticidal and fungicidal compounds from
Isatis tinctoria. Zeitschrift Fuer Naturforschung Section C Biosciences
49 (1-2). 44-48. abstract-- Tryptanthrin (1), indole-3-acetonitrile (2)
and p-coumaric acid methylester (3) were isolated from the aerial parts
of Isatis tinctoria L. The compounds show insecticidal and antifeedant
activity against termites (Reticulitermis santonensis), insect preventive
and control activity against larvae of the house longhorn beetle
(Hylotrupes bajulus) and fungicidal activity against the brown-rot fungus
(Coniophora puteana).  Language EN.█Lehrstuhl Org Chem I/2 NW II, Univ
Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth, GER

Stengard, & Hansen, L. 1990. The effect of cold treatment conditions on
the pupation and emergence of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes
bajulus L. Coleoptera: Cerambycidae. J. Appl. Entomol. 109 (3). 243-246.
abstract-- The induction of metamorphosis in Hylotrupes bajulus by cold
treatment was investigated. Large larvae (weight 200-500 mg) were kept
under the following conditions: group A: 100 days at 10.degree. C; group
B: 56 days at 5.degree. C. Group A larvae emerged in shorter time after
the termination of the cold treatment period and showed greater
uniformity in emergence time as well as a higher proportion of
metamorphosis. A greater proportion of the large larvae (> 400 mg)
underwent metamorphosis. Female larvae were significantly larger than
male larvae of the same age. In terms of mass rearing efficiency, cold
treatment at 10.degree. C for 100 days is the preferred method.  Language
EN.█TECHNOL INST DENMARK, DEP BIOTECHNOL, GREGERSENSVEJ, POSTBOX 14,
DK-2630 TAASTRUP, DENMARK

Schmidt, H. 1972. On the antennal sensilla of the house longhorn beetle
Hylotrupes bajulus. Z. Angew. Entomol. 70 (2). 113-120.